Q: What is Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis?
Answer: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is characterized by granulomatous abscess formation, kidney destruction, and a clinical picture that may resemble renal cell carcinoma. Patients present with recurrent fevers, bouts of urosepsis and a painful renal mass. Microscopically, there are granulomas and lipid-laden macrophages (hence the term xantho = yellow).
Antibiotics are used just as a temporizing measure in patients. Usually Nephrectomy is required. Limited cases may get away with partial nephrectomy.