Q: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is defined as a neurologic dysfunction caused by all of the following except?
A) Focal brain ischemia
B) Spinal cord ischemia
C) Retinal ischemia
D) With or without acute infarction
E) Less than 24 hours
The objective of above question is to highlight the main differential point between stroke and TIA. Infarction of any neurological tissue is regarded as a stroke. Technically TIA is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia without acute infarction. There is no time limit set for such episode (Choice E).
Easton JD, Saver JL, Albers GW, et al. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke 2009; 40:2276.