Thursday, November 9, 2017

Q: What is Howthrone effect?

Answer:  The Hawthorne effect is a type of psychological response in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.

Clinical significance: Howthorne effect found to be either a confounding or a modifying effect in randomized control trials, and may be responsible for placebo or better cognitive functioning.


1. McCarney R, Warner J, Iliffe S, van Haselen R, Griffin M, Fisher P; Warner; Iliffe; Van Haselen; Griffin; Fisher (2007). "The Hawthorne Effect: a randomised, controlled trial". BMC Med Res Methodol. 7: 30

2. Wickstrom G, Bendix T. The "Hawthorne effect"--what did the original Hawthorne studies actually show? Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2000;26:363–367

3. Hrobjartsson A, Gotzsche PC. Is the Placebo Powerless? — An Analysis of Clinical Trials Comparing Placebo with No Treatment. NEJM. 2001;344:1594–1602.

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