Wednesday, January 22, 2020


Q: Name a non-psychiatric disease for which electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) can be used?

Answer: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

Most of the literature in this regard is anecdotal and based on less than 100 case-reports. ECT can be considered as a last resort for treatment in NMS when drug therapy fails. Although some relationship is suspected with underlying psychiatric disorders particularly catatonia or medications on a patient's profile, the response is found to be not predictable on the basis of age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis or any particular feature of NMS including catatonia. 




1. Trollor JN, Chen X, Chitty K, Sachdev PS. Comparison of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 Jul. 201(1):52-6. 2. 

2. Morcos, N; Rosinski, A; Maixner, D. F. Electroconvulsive Therapy for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. A Case Series. The Journal of ECT: December 2019 - Volume 35 - Issue 4 - p 225–230

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