Q: All of the following are risk factors for Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) except?
A) Liver transplantation surgery
B) High peak airway pressure on mechanical ventilator
C) Negative fluid balance
D) Emergent cardiac surgery
E) Hematologic malignancy
The list of risk factor for TRALI is very long and growing day by day as with more recognition of this syndrome. Some risk factors are very well known such as high interleukin (IL)-8 levels, massive transfusion, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, and a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Others are less well known as described in the choices A, B, D and E. Other less well-known factors for TRALI are a positive fluid balance (choice C), transfusion of platelet or plasma, recipient female gender, smoking, history of alcohol abuse, intravenous immune globulin preparations, female donor, and increased parity.
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